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As I discussed in my post about “Strategic Points of Control,” F5 LTMs are in a great position to capture and report on information. I’ve recently encountered several issues where I needed to log the systems sending HTTP 404/500 responses and the URLs for which they were triggered. While this information can be obtained from a packet capture, I find it much easier to simply leverage iRules to log the information.

 

If you don’t know too much about iRules, I’d encourage you to head over to DevCentral and do some reading. One of the first things you’ll learn is that there are several “events” in which an iRule can inspect and react to traffic. Each event has different commands that can be used. While some commands can be used in multiple events, some may not.

 

As an example, HTTP::host and HTTP::uri can be used in the HTTP_REQUEST event, but not in the HTTP_RESPONSE event. Since an HTTP Error Response sent by a server would occur in the HTTP_RESPONSE event (between server and LTM,) we can’t simply log the value of HTTP::host or HTTP::uri as those commands aren’t usable in the HTTP_RESPONSE context. Fortunately, variables can be set in one event and referenced in another which allows us to still access the proper information.

 

Here’s an overview of what we’re trying to accomplish:

 

1. A client makes a request to a Virtual Server on the LTM.

2. The LTM sends this request to a pool member.

3. If the pool member (server) responds with an HTTP Status code of 500, we want to log the Pool Member’s IP, the requested HTTP Host and URI, and the Client’s IP address.

 

We’ll be using the “HTTP::status” command to check for 500s. Since this command needs to be executed within the HTTP_RESPONSE event which doesn’t have access to HTTP::host or HTTP::uri, we’ll need to use variables.

From the HTTP_REQUEST event, we’ll utilize said variables to track the value of HTTP::host, HTTP::uri, and IP::client_addr.

The HTTP_REQUEST event in our iRule will look something like this:

when HTTP_REQUEST {

set hostvar [HTTP::host]

set urivar [HTTP::uri]

set ipvar [IP::client_addr] }

Now, we’ll check the HTTP status code from within the HTTP_RESPONSE event and if it’s a 500, we’ll log the value of the variables above.

when HTTP_RESPONSE {

if { [HTTP::status] eq 500 } {

log local0. “$ipvar requested $hostvar $urivar and received a 500 from [IP::server_addr]” }}

 

Now, whenever a 500 is sent, you can simply check your LTM logs and you’ll see the client who received it, the server that sent it, and the URL that caused it. This is a fairly vanilla implementation. I’ve had several situations in which I needed to also report on the value of a JSESSIONID cookie so our app folks could also check their logs. In a situation like that, you’d simply set and call another variable.

From HTTP_REQUEST:

set appvar [HTTP::cookie JSESSIONID]

From HTTP_RESPONSE:

log local0. “session id was $appvar”

 

This was a good example of how easily iRules can be leveraged to report on issues. Unfortunately though, this isn’t always a scalable option which is why I thought I’d talk about a product I’ve really enjoyed using.

The folks behind¬†Extrahop call it an “Application Delivery Assurance” product. Since both co-founders came from F5, they have a great handle on Application Delivery and the challenges involved. Since I’m typically only concerned with HTTP traffic nowadays, I use Extrahop to track response times, alert on error responses, and also to baseline our environment. As an F5 user, I’m very pleased to see the product’s help section making recommendations on BIG-IP settings to tune if certain issues are seen.

I’d definitely encourage you to go check out some product literature. Since it’s not always fun to arrange a demo and talk to sales folks, they offer free analysis via www.networktimeout.com.¬†Simply upload a packet capture, it’ll be run through an Extrahop unit, and you can see the technology in action.

 

 

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